10. Port-au-Prince, Haiti
The Haitian capital, Port-au-Prince has around 2.5-3 million residents, many of who are concentrated in the city’s numerous slums. Despite political unrest, the city still attracts some tourism.
9. Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Among the largest sub-Saharan conurbations, Kinshasa has a population of around 8 million when combined with neighbouring Brazzaville. The city has a high crime rate with 112.3 murders per 100,000 residents.
8. Nouakchott, Mauritania
Mauritania’s largest city, Nouakchott expanded from a tiny fishing town in the 1950s to become a city of nearly 900,000 residents, many of whom moved to the city to escape drought.
7. Pointe Noire, Congo
Congo’s second largest city, Pointe Noire is among Central Africa’s largest producers of oil. Its attractions include its surfing beaches, although the Foreign Office warns visitors to beware of carjacking and walking the streets after dark.
6. Sana’a, Yemen
Dating back to the 6th-century BC, Sana’a’s Old City contains a number of ancient buildings and is recognised as a World Heritage Site. Recent attacks on foreign nationals and the bombing of the US Embassy, however, means it is off most tourist itineraries.
5. Khartoum, Sudan
Located on the confluence of the Blue and the White Nile, and the stage for Chinese Gordon’s last stand, the Sudanese capital has seen a great deal of development in recent years, driven largely by the country’s oil money.
4. Brazzaville, Congo
Founded in 1880 by European explorer Pierre Savorgan de Brazza, the city’s major industries include textiles and tanning. There were also a number of conflicts and civil wars here throughout the Nineties.
3. Ndjamena, Chad
With a population of more than 700,000, Ndjamena was originally founded by the French in 1900 as Fort-Lamy. The city was heavily damaged during the civil war of 1979-82, while rebels attacked the city as recently as 2008.
2. Bangui, Central African Republic
Originally a French military post, Bangui became a colonial administrative centre and now has a population in excess of 500,000. The city manufactures textiles, soap and beer, while a number of archeological sites outside the city have UNESCO World Heritage status.
1. Baghdad, Iraq
Baghdad is the world’s worst city in which to live, according to Mercer. Despite possessing a rich heritage, the city remains beset by problems, although the level of violence across Iraq appears to be falling.